Issue #5

Juliet Antunes SabloskyRecent Trends in Department of State Support for Cultural Diplomacy, 1993-2002. Center for Arts and Culture. Juliet’s recent paper examines basic elements in State’s cultural diplomacy programs, budget and staffing trends, and new directions and opportunities. Distributed at the “Arts and Minds” conference at Columbia University April 21-22 and at the Georgetown conference “Communicating with the World: Diplomacy That Works” on April 30. Available in pdf format at the Center’s website.

Robert CoonrodCreating the Digital Future, Keynote address at the Web-Wise 2003 Conference, February 27. 2003. Bob’s thoughts on how digital technologies are changing operating models and institutional relationships for broadcasting, museums, and libraries. Available at the Internet journal FirstMonday.

Steven Livingston“The New Media and Transparency: What are the Consequences for Diplomacy,” in Evan Potter, ed. Cyber-Diplomacy: Managing Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century, Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 2003. GWU Professor and Public Diplomacy Institute Chair Steve Livingston’s thinking on ways lightweight news gathering technologies, commercial remote sensing satellites, and wireless communications are changing diplomacy. A good summary for those unable to attend his panel discussion at Georgetown University earlier this year.

Other items of interest

Al Jazeera.net. English language Al Jazeera website coming online soon.

Thomas P.M. Barnett and Henry Gaffney, Jr“Global Transaction Strategy,” Military Officer, May 2002. Barnett and Gaffney analyze a new security paradigm in terms of a “functioning core” of globalization and a disconnected “non-integrating gap.” The authors see maintaining and expanding America’s historical alliances as critical national security.

Paul BermanTerror and Liberalism, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003. Political and cultural critic Paul Berman offers a powerful, well written analysis of the war against terrorism as a war of ideas. Drawing on a rich variety of Western and Islamic sources, Berman argues that current Islamic extremism can be understood as a new phase in the continuing battle between liberalism and totalitarianism. (Courtesy of Donna Oglesby: “I highly recommend it to people serious about public diplomacy.”)

Paul Berman“The Philosopher of Islamic Terror,” The New York Times Magazine, March 23, 2003. Essay on the ideas of Egyptian philosopher Sayyid Qutb. Adapted from Terror and Liberalism.

Columbia Journalism Review. CJR’s May/June 2003 issue contains a special issue on Iraq. “Special Report: Covering War in Real Time.” Articles include Terrence Smith’s assessment of war coverage (“The New Standard”), Adeel Hassan look at reporters taking risks (“To Die For”), and Paul Friedman’s analysis of (“The War on TV”). Available today in print, most articles should soon be posted on CJR’s web edition.

Milton C. Cummings, JrCultural Diplomacy and the United States Government: A Survey. A history of cultural diplomacy programs from the 1930’s to the present. Available at the Center for Arts and Culture website.

House International Relations CommitteeHouse Rpt.108-105 – Part 1 – Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005. The HIRC recently posted its Committee report on H.R. 1950. Contains summaries of the bill’s lengthy sections on public diplomacy in the Department of State and U.S. international broadcasting.

Stephen Johnson and Helle DaleReclaiming America’s Voice Overseas, WebMemo #273. A summary of recommendations developed in Johnson and Dale’s longer report on public diplomacy published by the Heritage Foundation. (See How to Reinvigorate U.S. Public Diplomacy, April 23, 2003.) Available on the Heritage Foundation’s website.

Thomas Pickering“Cultural Diplomacy Best Practices,” Introductory speech at the Meeting on Cultural Diplomacy cosponsored by the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Georgetown University and the Center for Arts and Culture, April 30. 2003.

Evan H. Potter, ed. Cyber-Diplomacy: Managing Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century, Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 2003. Potter, founding editor of the quarterly Canadian Foreign Policy and a former senior strategist at the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, teaches at the University of Ottawa. This collection of essays focuses on how Canada’s diplomats have used communications technology in support of its public diplomacy. Includes essays by Potter, PDI Chair Steve Livingston, and former Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Gordon Smith.

Samantha Power“A Problem From Hell” America and the Age of Genocide, New York: Basic Books, 2002. Power’s widely acclaimed Pulitzer Prize winner is included here for its references to television and the role of journalists throughout and especially the role of Radio Mille Collines and “hate radio” in Rwanda.

Marianne C. ScottA Citizen’s Guide to Global Economic Policymaking, League of Women Voters, 2002. Scott, an experienced public diplomacy officer and now deputy executive director of the American Committees on Foreign Relations, has written an excellent guide to the stakes, choices, and processes for citizens in multinational institutions. Available through the League’s website and Amazon.com

Philip Taylor“New Media in Modern War,” Science in War, April 2003. Leeds University’s Phil Taylor looks at distinctions between “media war” and “real war” in the context of television coverage of the Iraq war and the first Gulf War.

Virtual Diplomacy Listserv. This excellent listserv at the U.S. Institute of Peace has upgraded its software and changed its sender address to vdiplomacyowner@list.usip.org. PDC members may wish to sign on for this valuable resource, which is managed with care by Margarita S. Studemeister at USIP.

M. Mitchell WaldropPervasive Computing: An Overview of the Concept and Exploration of the Public Policy Implications. Foresight and Governance Project: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 2003. Waldrop’s paper examines the convergence of three waves of innovation: a proliferation of devices, wireless networking, and mobile software. Technical and accessible.

Margaret J. Wyszomirski, Christopher Burgess, and Catherine PeilaInternational Cultural Relations: A Multi-Country Comparison. A study of nine countries’ cultural diplomacy programs [Australia, Austria, France, Canada, Japan, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden and the United Kingdom] including data on goals, structure, program tools and financial support. Available at the Center for Arts and Culture website.

The Heritage Foundation (April 23) issued a report on How to Reinvigorate U.S. Public Diplomacy. The full report (with graphics) by Stephen Johnson and Helle Dale is available online in html and pdf formats.

Issue #4

David BollierThe Rise of Netpolitik: How the Internet Is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy, Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program, February 12, 2003. Report on the impact of network structures and technologies on the conduct of world affairs. Insights of leaders from the worlds of politics, diplomacy, finance, high technology, academia, and philanthropy on how information technology is changing the powers of the nation-state, the conduct of international relations, and the definition of national security. (Courtesy of Ellen Frost)

[www.aspeninstitute.org/c&s/pdfs/netpolitik.pdf Available online] or by contacting the Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program at (202) 736-5818 or at sunny@aspeninstitute.org.

Andrew Bushell and Brent Cunningham“Being There: Suddenly the Pentagon Grants Access to the Action, But the Devil’s in the Details,” Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 2003. Analysis of the pros and cons of embedded media with troops in the Middle East.

DiploFoundationInternational Conference on Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy (Malta, 20-23 February 2003). Report on a conference attended by 70 participants from 36 countries. Twenty four speakers presented on aspects of intercultural communication in diplomacy. Topics include cultural categories and values diplomats are likely to encounter in their work, stories from diplomatic practice, and case studies examining diplomacy in dealing with contacts between cultures.

Herbert J. GansDemocracy and the News, Oxford University Press, 2003. Gans, Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology at Columbia University, updates his 1979 classic Deciding What’s News. Reflections on the media and participatory democracy in the context of concerns about increasingly powerful public agencies and interest groups.

Ted Gup“Useful Secrets: In a Run-up to a War, How Do We Report Intelligently on Intelligence?” Columbia Journalism Review, March/April, 2003.

Mark Hunter“Is Paris Seething? Anti-Americanism is on the Rise With the Help of the French Press,” Columbia Journalism Review, January/February, 2003. Hunter’s “Letter from France” analyzes media trends, changing attitudes, Internet impact, stepped up U.S. media competition in Europe, and the declining gatekeeper role of The International Herald Tribune.

Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Paul WaldmanThe Press Effect: Politicians, Journalists, and the Stories that Shape the Political World. Oxford University Press, 2003. Jamieson, Dean of the Annenberg School of Communication at University of Pennsylvania and Waldman, Annenberg Postdoctoral Fellow, assess news reporting from the 2000 campaign through the period after September 11. Chapter titles include: Press as Storyteller, Press as Amateur Psychologist, Press as Soothsayer, Press as Shaper of Events, and Press as Patriot.

Edmund S. MorganBenjamin Franklin, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2002. Chapter 5, “The Importance of Opnion,” in Morgan’s masterful new biography provides insights into Franklin’s thinking on public opinion and his uses of political communication while serving as a colonial agent in London.

Terence Smith“War News,” Online NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, April 1, 2003. Strengths and weaknesses of the military’s “embedding” program and its influence on news of the war in Iraq.

Susan SontagRegarding the Pain of Others, New York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2003. Sontag’s short book (131 pages) looks at photojournalism and the documentary imagery of war from Mathew Brady and the Charge of the Light Brigade in the 19th century to Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Balkans.

State Department, Bureau of Educational and Cultural AffairsImpact of International Professional Exchanges on a U.S. Community: Philadelphia, PA. ECA’s Office of Policy Evaluation assessment of the impact of international professional exchanges on U.S. volunteers who host or meet with foreign visitors. The evaluation focuses on International Visitor, Community Connections, and Sister Cities programs. (Courtesy of Ted Knicker, ECA)

– One page summary

– Eight page executive summary

University of Windsor (Ontario Canada), Leddy Library. Website with links to a wide variety of news service coverage of the war in Iraq. Includes mainstream U.S., Canadian and overseas news media, governmental news releases, news summary and analysis sources, and various “alternative” news services. (Courtesy of Margarita Studemeister, US Institute of Peace)

Issue #3

Public Diplomacy Institute. Indonesia Town Hall Meeting, “Common Values, Common Challenges”

7:30 – 9:30 a.m., Friday, February 7. PDC members are urged to attend a video dialogue between approximately 50 Americans and 50 Indonesians in GWU’s Jack Morton Auditorium (School of Media and Public Affairs, 21st & H Streets, NW). The program is being developed for rebroadcast on Indonesian Television in cooperation with U.S. Embassy Jakarta, the Public Diplomacy Institute, RCTI Indonesian Television, the U.S. Indonesia Society, and Weber Shandwick. Arranged by State Department FSO Tim Gerhardson and PDI Director Barry Fulton, this early a.m. town hall meeting will be moderated by SMPA faculty member Steven Roberts.

Council on Foreign Relations. The Council’s [www.terrorismanswers.com new terrorism website] uses a Q&A format to provide explanations and backgrounders on terrorism and related foreign policy issues. The site contains a lengthy Q&A on public diplomacy drawn in part from Council’s Task Force on Public Diplomacy report.

Foreign Policy Centre. This London based think tank, directed by Mark Leonard, has begun the first phase of a public diplomacy research program in the Middle East, producing a case study of popular perceptions of public diplomacy in Turkey and Saudia Arabia, to be completed in mid December. A separate strand of PD research will be a reexamination of Norway’s international image and standing.

NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. The website transcript of Terry Smith’s public diplomacy segment (January 21) includes extended off-air interviews with each of the participants: U/S Charlotte Beers, media analyst Mamoun Fandy, BBG member Norman Pattiz, Radio Sawa news director Mouafac Harb, and Radio Sawa consultant Bert Kleinman.

Daniel Shurgurensky, ed., “Walter Lippmann and John Dewey Debate the Role of Citizens in Democracy,” History of Education: Selected Moments of the 20th Century. Concise, evenhanded treatment of this still relevant debate. Useful supplement for those who assign Walter Lippmann’s Public Opinion.

Books

Mark A. Abramson and Therese L. Morin (eds.), E-Government 2003. (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003). The book includes a collection of nine research reports sponsored by the IBM Endowment for The Business of
Government. Among the papers is a chapter by Barry Fulton entitled “Leveraging Technology in the Service of Diplomacy: Innovation in the Department of State.”

W. Lance BennettNews: The Politics of Illusion, (New York, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2003). Fifth edition of this classic with a new foreword by Doris Graber. Updated with new case studies, research, and material on digital information, post 9/11 news issues, and the impact of the Internet on mass media news.

W. Lance Bennett and David L. Paletz (eds). Taken By Storm: The Media, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy in the Gulf War, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994). This collection of 13 papers with an introduction by Marvin Kalb describes the role of the mass media and public opinion in the development of U.S. foreign policy in the 1991 Gulf War. It includes papers by PDI board members Jerry Manheim and Steve Livingston.
(Courtesy of Barry Fulton)

Mark BuchananNexus: Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Science of Networks, (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2002). This discussion of network theory, accessible to the non-specialist, treats social, technological, and scientific aspects of how networks interact and exchange information. Includes discussion of the Internet, information networks, the global economy, disease, and ecosystems.

James DawesThe Language of War: Literature and Culture in the U.S. from the Civil War Through World War II, (Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2002). Dawes examines the relationship between language and violence focusing on American literature and two analytical models: The “emancipatory model,” derived from political discourse and deliberative democracy theories, and the “disciplinary model,” derived from poststructuralism and concepts of language as a means to discipline and control violence.

David FrumThe Right Man: The Surprise Presidency of George W. Bush (New York, Random House, 2003). Chapter 9 in this account by a former Presidential speechwriter deals with the Administration’s post 9/11 communications efforts. References to Karen Hughes, Karl Rove, Charlotte Beers, and Norman Pattis. (Courtesy of Dell Pendergrast)

Montreal Museum of Fine ArtsRichelieu: Art and Power, Hilliard Todd Goldfarb, ed. This catalog (411 pages) written for the Museum’s recent exhibit explores Cardinal Richelieu’s use of the visual arts for political purposes. Thoughtful essays on art, history, psychology, and the subtle use of images to project state power.

Brigitte NacosMass-Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism, (Lanham, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield, 2002). A substantial rewrite of Professor Nacos’s (Columbia University) 1996 book on the media and terrorism. Includes extensive research on post 9/11 issues and a restatement of her theories on the media as terrorism’s “oxygen” and “propaganda of the deed.”

George OrwellEssays. (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Everyman’s Library, 2002). The only hardcover edition of Orwell’s literary and political writings. Introduction by John Carey. Includes “The Frontiers of Art and Propaganda,” “Politics and the English Language,” (writing advice worth assigning to undergraduates), and a number of Orwell’s BBC World Service commentaries broadcast during World War II.

Sandra SilbersteinWar of Words: Language, Politics and 9/11, (New York, Routledge, 2002). A linguist’s critical study of the “strategic deployment of language” by the Bush Administration to build support for the war on terror.

Barbie Zelizer and Stuart AllanJournalism After September 11, (New York, Routledge, 2002). Zelizer (Annenberg School, University of Pennsylvania) and Allan (University of the West of England) bring together 15 essays on journalism and crisis, reporting by CNN and other global news media, Western representations of Islam, online journalism and other topics. Includes essays by James Carey (journalism pre-and post-9/11), Simon Cottle (television), and Ingrid Volkmer (political crises in a global network society).

Issue #2

Associated Press/Silicon Valley News“Internet reaches another technological outpost … the Iranian village,” July 4, 2002.

Associated Press/Silicon Valley NewsTelecommunications drawing investors in Afghanistan. “There are only 12,000 functioning telephones for nearly 2 million people in Kabul. And most calls never go through. The situation is worse in the provinces.”

Shazka Beyerle“Net Effect,” Foreign Policy, July/August, 2002. Beyerle’s review of “the Middle East’s e-War.” Description and analysis of cyberactivism and conflict resolution websites. Links to numerous websites. (Also a separate link to NATO Press Chief Jamie Shea’s “top web picks.”)

Council on Foreign Relations Independent Task Force Report on Public Diplomacy. Council Chairman Peter G. Peterson’s article, “Public Diplomacy and the War on Terrorism,” adapted from “the Chairman’s preliminary summary of the report,” appears in the new September/October issue of Foreign Affairs, at pp. 74-94. The Executive Summary the full report, appendixes, and dissents are available on line at the Council’s website.

Diplo.edu. International network of institutions devoted to education, projects, news, resources, web management and technology tools for the creation and dissemination of information and knowledge for diplomacy and international relations.

Europemedia.Net. Tracks European Internet and new media developments on a pan-European level and country-by-country.

Tom GeltonPentagon Disinformation Debate from All Things Considered, July 19, 2002 Debate continues on the Pentagon’s Office of Strategic Influence. Supporters and critics have their say in this five-minute NPR segment.

Tony Judt“Its Own Worst Enemy,” The New York Review of Books, August 15, 2002, pp. 12-17. Lengthy favorable review of Joseph Nye’s book The Paradox of American Power. Critique of U.S. unilateralism and assessment of European views on U.S. policies.

Jessica Mathews“September 11, One Year Later: A World of Change,” Carnegie Endowment’s Special Edition, Policy Brief 18, August 20, 2002. Mathews looks at the effects of 9/11 on the economy, the environment, globalization, and the U.S. relationship with Russia, China, Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. She also considers how future events and key policy choices will dictate the eventual significance of 9/11.

Siobhan McEvoy-LevyAmerican Exceptionalism and US Foreign Policy: Public Diplomacy at the End of the Cold War, St. Martins Press, 2001. Amazon.com comments: “This book examines . . . strategies and values employed in the public diplomacy of the Bush and Clinton Administrations to build domestic and international consensus . . . a model and an illustration for how rhetoric may be used in the study of United States foreign policy.”

Moises Naim“The New Disapora,” Foreign Policy, July/August, 2002. FP editor Naim’s thoughts on new links between emigres and their home countries as a force in globalization.

Nua.com2002 Global Trends Report. 10% of the world’s population now has Internet access. For the first time, Europe has the highest number of Internet users, with 185.83m Europeans online compared to 182.83m in the US and Canada. The study also confirms no change in the digital divide. Full text of article on the Europemedia site.

NUA Internet Surveys. Online source on Internet demographics and trends. Nua’s “How Many Online?” link contains current estimates of global Internet user population, based on surveys and reports from around the world.

Public Diplomacy
Mark Leonard, with Catherine Stead and Conrad Smewing
The British Council, BBC World Service, Norway-UK
18th June 2002

The Foreign Policy Centre, directed by Mark Leonard, has issued a new report on public diplomacy in association with the British Council, BBC World Service, and Norway-UK. Joseph Nye’s Amazon reviewer’s comment: “First Rate.” Below is a summary from the Centre’s website (“Tony Blair’s think tank”).
PDC members will recall the roundtable with Mark Leonard hosted by the Public Diplomacy Institute at George Washington University last spring and a lively conversation on his research for this report.

In the world of al-Jazeera, global protest and mass democracy, building relationships with overseas publics can be as important as talking to governments. Whether countries build an international coalition against al-Qaida, reform the Common Agricultural Policy, or attract inward investment, influencing public opinion abroad will be crucial. What should our strategy for success be in this global competition for exports, tourism, investment and political influence? How can governments harness the power of NGOs, brands, diasporas and political parties to project a modern image? What lessons emerged from public diplomacy after September 11? The report sets out a practical agenda for public diplomacy which draws on fieldwork in six countries, hundreds of interviews with practitioners, and contributions from the experts in academia and communications – from Harvard academic Joseph Nye to Downing Street spokesman Alistair Campbell.

Issue #1

British Council Survey of Young MuslimsAlan Travis“Muslims View the US and Britain with Love and Hate,” Guardian, June 11, 2002.

Broadcasting Board of Governors. BBG Website has a new look and updated content. Developed by BBG public affairs staffer Joan Mower.

Georgetown University ISD Panels“Talking with the Islamic World: Is the Message Getting Through?” Spring 2002 series coordinated by Marjorie Ransom with assistance from Mary Gawronski is online in html and pdf formats.

– Session I: The U.S. Image in the Islamic World

– Session II: How American and Foreign Media Present America

– Session III: Projecting a Positive American Image

Michael Medved“Hollywood’s Contribution to Anti-Americanism,” The National Interest, Summer, 2002, pp. 5-14. “Hollywood may dismiss its silver-screen version of a violent and debauched America as harmless fantasy, but to the rest of the world its the real thing.”

Marc Nathanson. BBG Chair. National Press Club Afternoon Newsmaker Program,
Wednesday, June 26, 2002.Discusses Middle East Radio Network (with Norm Pattis) and other issues.

Neil Hickey“Perspectives on War: Different Cultures, Different Coverage,” Columbia Journalism Review, March/April, 2002. CJR examines different perspectives in media coverage of Afghanistan and events in the Middle East. Neil Hickey compares TV coverage in the West with Al Jazeera. Rick Zednik looks inside Al Jazeera. George Kennedy finds differences in war coverage in the U.S. and the U.K.

Henry Hyde.HIRC Chair. Transcript with Q&A, Speaking to our Silent Allies: the Role of Public Diplomacy in U.S. Foreign Policy, Remarks at Washington Council on Foreign Relations, June 17, 2002.

Shanthi Kalathil“Community and Communalism in the Information Age,” Reprinted from Spring 2002 issue of the Brown Journal of World Affairs, Volume IX, Issue 1. “Many have extolled America’s ability to wield not only hard military power but soft power, the less easily quantifiable ability to influence, persuade and shape opinion through culture, diplomacy, and diffuse information flows . . . Yet since 11 September, policymakers and the public alike have been confronted with the flip side of that assumption.” Online at Carnegie Endowment Information Revolution and World Politics Project.

Lawrence Kaplan“Return Address: Why the Bushies Won’t Push Democracy in the Middle East,” The New Republic, June 10, 2002. Kaplan on the views of Paul Wolfowitz, Richard Haass, Lorne Craner, Doug Feith, Paula Dobriansky, Charlotte Beers, Norm Pattis, Andrew Natsios, Thomas Carothers, Mark Palmer and others. Not hotlinked on the TNR website.

Pew Research Center“Publics News Habits Little Changed by September 11, Americans Lack Background to Follow International News,” People-press, June 9, 2002.” Reported levels of reading, watching and listening to the news are not markedly different than in the spring of 2000. At best, a slightly larger percentage of the public is expressing general interest in international and national news, but there is no evidence its appetite for international news extends much beyond terrorism and the Middle East.”

Amb. (ret.) P.S. Sahai“Cultural Diplomacy: India in Singapore,” February, 2002. pp 1-18. Amb. Sahai served in the Indian Foreign Service from 1963 to 2000 and is now on the faculty at the Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development in Chandigarh. He met with Juliet Antunes-Sablosky, Barry Fulton, and Jerry Manheim at GWU on June 25. (MS Word copy available on request.)

John RendonLetter to the EditorThe New Republic, June 24, 2002.Reply to Franklin Foer’s “Flacks Americana” article, May 20.

Stephen Seplow“Closer to Home,” American Journalism Review, July/August, 2002. Long relegated to the margins, foreign news has experienced a modest resurgence since September 11. But much of the coverage has focused on the war on terrorism and the Middle East. Will the blackout return after the crises ebb?”

Charles Skuba“Branding America,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Summer/Fall, 2002, pp. 105-114. PDF manuscript version available on request.”The United States must use the tools of marketing to promote America’s image abroad.”

Shibley Telami.Statement on public diplomacy before the House CJS Subcommittee, April 24. Online at Brookings. Forwarded by Dell Pendergrast.

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