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Alan HeilVoice of America: A History, Columbia University Press, 2003.

Public Diplomacy Council Members in Print and on the Web

Wilson Dizard, Jr. "Telling America's Story," American Heritage, August/September, 2003. With anecdotes, pictures, and the perspective of 30 years in USIA, Wilson looks at the Agency's mission and continuing influence.

Wilson Dizard, Jr. "Remembering USIA," Foreign Service Journal, July/August, 2003. A retrospective on the occasion of the Agency's 50th anniversary. Available online in pdf format.

Princeton Lyman. Interviewed by Bernard Gwertzman, online consulting editor for the Council on Foreign Relations,, July 14, 2003. Lyman, the Council's Ralph Bunche senior fellow for Africa policy studies, discusses President Bush's July 8-12 trip to Africa, Liberia, and requests from U.N. and African leaders for American peacekeepers.

Sherry Mueller and William Rugh. Panelists at the Heritage Foundation Forum, "Regaining America's Voice Overseas," July 10, 2003. Other participants included Seth Cropsey, Edwin J. Feulner Jr., Alan Heil, Mark Helmke, and Steve Johnson. Available on Real Audio/Real Video at the Heritage website.

A print version of Sherry's remarks on exchanges, the International Visitor program, and the April 16 PD Forum Sustaining Exchanges While Securing Borders is available on request in MS Word.

Other Books, Articles, and Websites

Anne Applebaum. "Parallel Universes," The Washington Post, July 23, 2003. Looking at coverage of Tony Blair's speech to Congress, Applebaum argues media in different cultures reflect "alternative versions of reality" not just different opinions on the news -- with consequences for how we think about globalized information and "real time" information.

Council on Foreign Relations. "Embedded Journalists in Iraq: Reality TV or Desert Mirage?" July 29, 2003. Moderated by New York Times Pentagon correspondent Thomas Shanker. Panelists: Lt. Col. Richard Long, Coordinator of embedded journalists for the U.S. Marine Corps. William Branigin, Washington Post correspondent, embedded journalist, and John Donvan, ABC News Nightline correspondent, non-embedded journalist.

Robert Dodaro. "Eloquent Lies, Just War and the Politics of Persuasion: Reading Augustine's City of God in a 'Postmodern World,'" Augustinian Studies, 25, 1994, pp. 77-138. Dodaro puts Augustine's critique of deception for political and military ends in the context of his "often missed" critique of Roman religious and social institutions as carriers of ruling class ideology. Contains an analysis of Augustine's views on Rome's use of "mass media" in the context of ethical writing on the 1991 Persian Gulf war. Dodaro atypically casts Augustine in politically progressive tones and situates Noam Chomsky in the Augustinian tradition.

Greta Morris. "Morris Confirmed as US Ambassador to Marshalls," East-West Center, July 2, 2003. Greta moves from PAO Jakarta, where her work included the US/Indonesian Telecast "Common Values, Common Challenges" (co-sponsored by State and GWU's Public Diplomacy Institute, February 2003) to arranging appointments for journalist Tom Friedman that led to good columns on public diplomacy.

John Gittings."Beijing is Losing the People's War in Cyberspace," YaleGlobal Online, July 21, 2003. Gittings contends an emerging civil society is gaining more freedom and "the sheer volume of people taking to the Web to discuss taboo subjects is overwhelming the government." YaleGlobal Online, a publication of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, is an excellent website for articles and papers on globalization issues.

Walter Isaacson. Benjamin Franklin: An American Life, New York, Simon & Schuster, 2003. Isaacson's biography follows Edmund S. Morgan's Benjamin Franklin published in 2002. Both books discuss Franklin's years as a public diplomat in London and Paris. Isaacson, former Chairman of CNN and managing editor of Time magazine, devotes attention to Franklin's media relations, use of anonymous press items, association with philosophical and scientific organizations, "gambit of drawing power from American idealism" as a "public diplomacy strategy," and role in the high culture and high politics of 18th century Europe. Morgan is useful for his chapter length analysis of Franklin's thinking on "the importance of public opinion."

Anthony Kuhn. "Chinese Learn True Scope of SARS From the Internet," USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review, May 28, 2003. How the government-controlled media downplayed the extent of the epidemic and the number of fatalities. (Former VOA staffer Josh Fouts is co-founder and executive editor of the Online Journalism Review.)

Yale Richmond. Cultural Exchange and the Cold War: Raising the Iron Curtain, University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. Drawing on scholarly literature, Russian archives, interviews with Americans and Russians, and his years of foundation and Foreign Service experience, Yale provides a comprehensive, thoughtful, and penetrating analysis of the influence of exchanges on the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. (Courtesy of McKinney Russell)

U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy. The New Diplomacy: Utilizing Innovative Communication Concepts that Recognize Resource Constraints, July, 2003. This 6-page Commission report contains recommendations on American Presence Posts, American Corners, and Virtual Consulates. Online at the Commission's website.

U.S. Department of State. State's International Information Programs website has a new look. Intended for overseas audiences, this valuable website continues to be an excellent resource for U.S. students and journalists.

Students also use the periodic "Issue Focus" reports on State's Foreign Media Reactionpage.

State's Foreign Press Centers website is useful for its links to: briefing transcripts, Congressional Reference Service and other government reports, a new page on the 2004 elections, and weblinks for journalists,

U.S. Department of State. Outcome Assessment of the Institute for Representative Government (IRG) Program. Evaluation of programs "to enhance understanding of the US political system and the US Congress among foreign parliamentarians and government officials from developing or newly established democracies." Study conducted by the American Institutes for Research of Washington, DC. Available online in pdf format. (Courtesy of Ted Knicker, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.)

-- One page summary

-- Executive summary (8 pages)

-- Summaries for other program evaluations

R.S. Zaharna. "The Unintended Consequences of Crisis Public Diplomacy: American Public Diplomacy in the Arab World," Foreign Policy in Focus, Interhemispheric Resource Center, June 2003. Zaharna argues that unless Washington officials address why initial public diplomacy efforts failed after 9/11, the same result may occur in future but with greater consequences.

R.S. Zaharna and Mark Heaphy. "Letters and Comments," Progressive Response. Exchange on Zaharna's article. Interesting conversation on cognitive styles, cultural differences, how Americans and others perceive and sequence facts -- and grasp "truth." (Courtesy of Ellen Frost)

-- "Letters and Comments" [Scroll down page to "Analytical Shortcomings in Analysis of Public Diplomacy."]

Nicholas Cull, David Culbert, and David Welch, Propaganda & Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present, ABC-Clio Inc, 2003. Concise entries, cross-referenced. Includes biographies.

Brent Cunningham"Re-thinking Objectivity" Columbia Journalism Review, July/August, 2003.
Lengthy discussion of questions relating to journalistic principles of "objectivity" and "truth" in the post 9/11 and Iraq war contexts. Draws on the thinking of James Carey, Herbert Gans, E.J. Dionne, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, and others. Looks at reliance on official sources, computer assisted research, nonstop news cycles, and the Bush Administration's case for the Iraq war.

Claes de VreeseCommunicating Europe: Next Generation Democracy. British Council & Weber Shandwick Public Affairs, April 2003.
Based on a study of broadcast media across the EU, de Vreese concludes that too often the EU's strategy is to focus on sending out pro-European messages, rather than presenting the EU as a political system with room for disagreement, discussion and debate. Contains recommendations on how the EU must change including the redesign of institutions to take account of political communication and news framing. Available at the Foreign Policy Centre's website.

DiploFoundationWeb-Management for International Organisations, Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, Malta, 2003,
Paperback, 40 pages. Summaries of papers presented at the International Conference on Web-Management for International Organisations. Web management practitioners and decision makers in international organisations share their experiences and discuss issues of common interest.

Alan HeilVoice of America: A History, Columbia University Press, 2003, pp. 538.
Alan's detailed and carefully researched "insider's story" of "the transformation of VOA from a propaganda organ to a respected source of information, from shortwave in World War II to multimedia in the twenty-first century, from a wartime base of relatively few listeners in its first weeks to a global network combining radio, television, and the Internet."

Stephen Hess and Marvin Kalb, eds. The Media and the War on Terrorism, Brookings Institution, 2003. Publication forthcoming. Current and former government officials and broadcast journalists look at post-9/11 media coverage issues. Contributors include Victoria Clarke, Lawrence Eagleburger, Ted Koppel, Bob Schieffer, Daniel Schorr, and James R. Schlesinger. Co-sponsored with Harvard's Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics, and Public Policy.

Robert D. Kaplan"Supremacy by Stealth: Ten Rules for Managing the World," The Atlantic Monthly, July/August, 2003, pp. 66-83. Analysis of how the U.S. should operate at a tactical level in managing its "global empire." Based on Kaplan's extensive reporting on the role of U.S. Special Forces and his book, Warrior Politics: Why Leadership Demands a Pagan Ethos, 2001. Kaplan calls for language qualified and media savvy diplomats, more area experts and language specialists inside government, and -- as a "strategic imperative" -- reinvention of the U.S. Information Agency. (Courtesy of Dell Pendergrast)

Robert D. Kaplan"The Hard Edge of American Values," The Atlantic Online. In a lengthy post-publication interview with Elizabeth Shelbourne, Kaplan elaborates on his July/August cover story. "Supremacy by Stealth." Kaplan elaborates on State's relevance, State/military relations, the role of the media, and the need to "do information a lot better than we are doing it."

Pippa NorrisFraming Terrorism: The News Media, Government & the Public, Routlege, 2003. This collection of essays looks at the news framing process and its impact on US foreign and national security policies since 9/11. Contributors include Professors Sean Aday and Kimberly Gross of GWU's School of Media and Public Affairs. Several chapters are available online. (Courtesy of Donna Oglesby)

Joseph S. Nye, Jr"U.S. Power and Strategy After Iraq," Foreign Affairs, July/August, 2003, pp. 60-73. Nye updates key arguments on soft power; US, Iraq, and North Korea policies; and the Bush Administration's national security strategy with his usual analytical clarity. A convenient summary of central arguments in his The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone, 2002.

Online NewsHour with Jim Lehrer"Managing the Message."Transcript of Terence Smith's Media Watch, May 23, 2003. Smith, New York Times reporter Elisabeth Bumiller, and former Reagan deputy chief of staff Michael Deaver look at how the resignation of White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer and President Bush's speech at Mt. Rushmore draw attention to the way the administration projects the president's image.

Online NewsHour with Jim Lehrer"Media Crackdown," Transcript of Terence Smith's Media Watch, June 1, 2003. Smith discusses the state of Russian media and President Putin's closure of Russia's last remaining independent television broadcaster with Ellen Mickiewicz, a Russian media expert from Duke University, and Yevgeny Kiselyov, former general manager of the now defunct TV-6.

Howard RheingoldSmart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution: Transforming Cultures and Communities in the Age of Instant Access, Perseus Publishing, 2002. Internet guru Rheingold looks at how the convergence of mobile communications -- cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless-paging and Internet-access devices -- is driving political and cultural change from Tokyo to Helsinki to Manhattan to Manila. Updated ideas from the author of The Virtual Community,1993.

Rachel Smolkin"Media Mood Swings," American Journalism Review, June 2003. Smolkin looks at the media's Iraq war coverage. Did "news frames" reflect battle field realities and views of active and retired military officers? Or did the media make premature, fascile judgments?

U.S. Department of State. Recent electronic journals online at State's International Information Program's website.

-- "Responses to Human Trafficking," June, 2003.

-- "The Changing Face of U.S. Courts," May, 2003.

-- "The Arts in America: New Directions," April, 2003.


-- "American Internationalism," July, 2003.

-- "Agricultural Biotechnology," August, 2003.

-- "Innovations in Democratic Governance," September, 2003.

Duncan WattsSix Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, W.W. Norton & Co., 2003. Columbia University and Santa Fe Institute sociologist Duncan Watts analyzes underlying principles of network theory, network structures, and ways in which information spreads (or doesn't spread) between the nodes of a network -- people, neurons, or computers.

Juliet Antunes SabloskyRecent Trends in Department of State Support for Cultural Diplomacy, 1993-2002. Center for Arts and Culture. Juliet's recent paper examines basic elements in State's cultural diplomacy programs, budget and staffing trends, and new directions and opportunities. Distributed at the "Arts and Minds" conference at Columbia University April 21-22 and at the Georgetown conference "Communicating with the World: Diplomacy That Works" on April 30. Available in pdf format at the Center's website.

Robert CoonrodCreating the Digital Future, Keynote address at the Web-Wise 2003 Conference, February 27. 2003. Bob's thoughts on how digital technologies are changing operating models and institutional relationships for broadcasting, museums, and libraries. Available at the Internet journal FirstMonday.

Steven Livingston"The New Media and Transparency: What are the Consequences for Diplomacy," in Evan Potter, ed. Cyber-Diplomacy: Managing Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century, Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 2003. GWU Professor and Public Diplomacy Institute Chair Steve Livingston's thinking on ways lightweight news gathering technologies, commercial remote sensing satellites, and wireless communications are changing diplomacy. A good summary for those unable to attend his panel discussion at Georgetown University earlier this year.

Other items of interest

Al English language Al Jazeera website coming online soon.

Thomas P.M. Barnett and Henry Gaffney, Jr"Global Transaction Strategy," Military Officer, May 2002. Barnett and Gaffney analyze a new security paradigm in terms of a "functioning core" of globalization and a disconnected "non-integrating gap." The authors see maintaining and expanding America's historical alliances as critical national security.

Paul BermanTerror and Liberalism, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003. Political and cultural critic Paul Berman offers a powerful, well written analysis of the war against terrorism as a war of ideas. Drawing on a rich variety of Western and Islamic sources, Berman argues that current Islamic extremism can be understood as a new phase in the continuing battle between liberalism and totalitarianism. (Courtesy of Donna Oglesby: "I highly recommend it to people serious about public diplomacy.")

Paul Berman"The Philosopher of Islamic Terror," The New York Times Magazine, March 23, 2003. Essay on the ideas of Egyptian philosopher Sayyid Qutb. Adapted from Terror and Liberalism.

Columbia Journalism Review. CJR's May/June 2003 issue contains a special issue on Iraq. "Special Report: Covering War in Real Time." Articles include Terrence Smith's assessment of war coverage ("The New Standard"), Adeel Hassan look at reporters taking risks ("To Die For"), and Paul Friedman's analysis of ("The War on TV"). Available today in print, most articles should soon be posted on CJR's web edition.

Milton C. Cummings, JrCultural Diplomacy and the United States Government: A Survey. A history of cultural diplomacy programs from the 1930's to the present. Available at the Center for Arts and Culture website.

House International Relations CommitteeHouse Rpt.108-105 - Part 1 - Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2005. The HIRC recently posted its Committee report on H.R. 1950. Contains summaries of the bill's lengthy sections on public diplomacy in the Department of State and U.S. international broadcasting.

Stephen Johnson and Helle DaleReclaiming America's Voice Overseas, WebMemo #273. A summary of recommendations developed in Johnson and Dale's longer report on public diplomacy published by the Heritage Foundation. (See How to Reinvigorate U.S. Public Diplomacy, April 23, 2003.) Available on the Heritage Foundation's website.

Thomas Pickering"Cultural Diplomacy Best Practices," Introductory speech at the Meeting on Cultural Diplomacy cosponsored by the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Georgetown University and the Center for Arts and Culture, April 30. 2003.

Evan H. Potter, ed. Cyber-Diplomacy: Managing Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century, Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 2003. Potter, founding editor of the quarterly Canadian Foreign Policy and a former senior strategist at the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, teaches at the University of Ottawa. This collection of essays focuses on how Canada's diplomats have used communications technology in support of its public diplomacy. Includes essays by Potter, PDI Chair Steve Livingston, and former Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Gordon Smith.

Samantha Power"A Problem From Hell" America and the Age of Genocide, New York: Basic Books, 2002. Power's widely acclaimed Pulitzer Prize winner is included here for its references to television and the role of journalists throughout and especially the role of Radio Mille Collines and "hate radio" in Rwanda.

Marianne C. ScottA Citizen's Guide to Global Economic Policymaking, League of Women Voters, 2002. Scott, an experienced public diplomacy officer and now deputy executive director of the American Committees on Foreign Relations, has written an excellent guide to the stakes, choices, and processes for citizens in multinational institutions. Available through the League's website and

Philip Taylor"New Media in Modern War," Science in War, April 2003. Leeds University's Phil Taylor looks at distinctions between "media war" and "real war" in the context of television coverage of the Iraq war and the first Gulf War.

Virtual Diplomacy Listserv. This excellent listserv at the U.S. Institute of Peace has upgraded its software and changed its sender address to PDC members may wish to sign on for this valuable resource, which is managed with care by Margarita S. Studemeister at USIP.

M. Mitchell WaldropPervasive Computing: An Overview of the Concept and Exploration of the Public Policy Implications. Foresight and Governance Project: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 2003. Waldrop's paper examines the convergence of three waves of innovation: a proliferation of devices, wireless networking, and mobile software. Technical and accessible.

Margaret J. Wyszomirski, Christopher Burgess, and Catherine PeilaInternational Cultural Relations: A Multi-Country Comparison. A study of nine countries' cultural diplomacy programs [Australia, Austria, France, Canada, Japan, Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden and the United Kingdom] including data on goals, structure, program tools and financial support. Available at the Center for Arts and Culture website.

The Heritage Foundation (April 23) issued a report on How to Reinvigorate U.S. Public Diplomacy. The full report (with graphics) by Stephen Johnson and Helle Dale is available online in html and pdf formats.

David BollierThe Rise of Netpolitik: How the Internet Is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy, Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program, February 12, 2003. Report on the impact of network structures and technologies on the conduct of world affairs. Insights of leaders from the worlds of politics, diplomacy, finance, high technology, academia, and philanthropy on how information technology is changing the powers of the nation-state, the conduct of international relations, and the definition of national security. (Courtesy of Ellen Frost)

[ Available online] or by contacting the Aspen Institute Communications and Society Program at (202) 736-5818 or at

Andrew Bushell and Brent Cunningham"Being There: Suddenly the Pentagon Grants Access to the Action, But the Devil's in the Details," Columbia Journalism Review, March/April 2003. Analysis of the pros and cons of embedded media with troops in the Middle East.

DiploFoundationInternational Conference on Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy (Malta, 20-23 February 2003). Report on a conference attended by 70 participants from 36 countries. Twenty four speakers presented on aspects of intercultural communication in diplomacy. Topics include cultural categories and values diplomats are likely to encounter in their work, stories from diplomatic practice, and case studies examining diplomacy in dealing with contacts between cultures.

Herbert J. GansDemocracy and the News, Oxford University Press, 2003. Gans, Robert S. Lynd Professor of Sociology at Columbia University, updates his 1979 classic Deciding What's News. Reflections on the media and participatory democracy in the context of concerns about increasingly powerful public agencies and interest groups.

Ted Gup"Useful Secrets: In a Run-up to a War, How Do We Report Intelligently on Intelligence?" Columbia Journalism Review, March/April, 2003.

Mark Hunter"Is Paris Seething? Anti-Americanism is on the Rise With the Help of the French Press," Columbia Journalism Review, January/February, 2003. Hunter's "Letter from France" analyzes media trends, changing attitudes, Internet impact, stepped up U.S. media competition in Europe, and the declining gatekeeper role of The International Herald Tribune.

Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Paul WaldmanThe Press Effect: Politicians, Journalists, and the Stories that Shape the Political World. Oxford University Press, 2003. Jamieson, Dean of the Annenberg School of Communication at University of Pennsylvania and Waldman, Annenberg Postdoctoral Fellow, assess news reporting from the 2000 campaign through the period after September 11. Chapter titles include: Press as Storyteller, Press as Amateur Psychologist, Press as Soothsayer, Press as Shaper of Events, and Press as Patriot.

Edmund S. MorganBenjamin Franklin, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2002. Chapter 5, "The Importance of Opnion," in Morgan's masterful new biography provides insights into Franklin's thinking on public opinion and his uses of political communication while serving as a colonial agent in London.

Terence Smith"War News," Online NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, April 1, 2003. Strengths and weaknesses of the military's "embedding" program and its influence on news of the war in Iraq.

Susan SontagRegarding the Pain of Others, New York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2003. Sontag's short book (131 pages) looks at photojournalism and the documentary imagery of war from Mathew Brady and the Charge of the Light Brigade in the 19th century to Vietnam, Cambodia, and the Balkans.

State Department, Bureau of Educational and Cultural AffairsImpact of International Professional Exchanges on a U.S. Community: Philadelphia, PA. ECA's Office of Policy Evaluation assessment of the impact of international professional exchanges on U.S. volunteers who host or meet with foreign visitors. The evaluation focuses on International Visitor, Community Connections, and Sister Cities programs. (Courtesy of Ted Knicker, ECA)

One page summary

Eight page executive summary

University of Windsor (Ontario Canada), Leddy Library. Website with links to a wide variety of news service coverage of the war in Iraq. Includes mainstream U.S., Canadian and overseas news media, governmental news releases, news summary and analysis sources, and various "alternative" news services. (Courtesy of Margarita Studemeister, US Institute of Peace)

Public Diplomacy Institute. Indonesia Town Hall Meeting, "Common Values, Common Challenges"

7:30 - 9:30 a.m., Friday, February 7. PDC members are urged to attend a video dialogue between approximately 50 Americans and 50 Indonesians in GWU's Jack Morton Auditorium (School of Media and Public Affairs, 21st & H Streets, NW). The program is being developed for rebroadcast on Indonesian Television in cooperation with U.S. Embassy Jakarta, the Public Diplomacy Institute, RCTI Indonesian Television, the U.S. Indonesia Society, and Weber Shandwick. Arranged by State Department FSO Tim Gerhardson and PDI Director Barry Fulton, this early a.m. town hall meeting will be moderated by SMPA faculty member Steven Roberts.

Council on Foreign Relations. The Council's [ new terrorism website] uses a Q&A format to provide explanations and backgrounders on terrorism and related foreign policy issues. The site contains a lengthy Q&A on public diplomacy drawn in part from Council's Task Force on Public Diplomacy report.

Foreign Policy Centre. This London based think tank, directed by Mark Leonard, has begun the first phase of a public diplomacy research program in the Middle East, producing a case study of popular perceptions of public diplomacy in Turkey and Saudia Arabia, to be completed in mid December. A separate strand of PD research will be a reexamination of Norway's international image and standing.

NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. The website transcript of Terry Smith's public diplomacy segment (January 21) includes extended off-air interviews with each of the participants: U/S Charlotte Beers, media analyst Mamoun Fandy, BBG member Norman Pattiz, Radio Sawa news director Mouafac Harb, and Radio Sawa consultant Bert Kleinman.

Daniel Shurgurensky, ed., "Walter Lippmann and John Dewey Debate the Role of Citizens in Democracy," History of Education: Selected Moments of the 20th Century. Concise, evenhanded treatment of this still relevant debate. Useful supplement for those who assign Walter Lippmann's Public Opinion.


Mark A. Abramson and Therese L. Morin (eds.), E-Government 2003. (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003). The book includes a collection of nine research reports sponsored by the IBM Endowment for The Business of
Government. Among the papers is a chapter by Barry Fulton entitled "Leveraging Technology in the Service of Diplomacy: Innovation in the Department of State."

W. Lance BennettNews: The Politics of Illusion, (New York, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2003). Fifth edition of this classic with a new foreword by Doris Graber. Updated with new case studies, research, and material on digital information, post 9/11 news issues, and the impact of the Internet on mass media news.

W. Lance Bennett and David L. Paletz (eds). Taken By Storm: The Media, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy in the Gulf War, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994). This collection of 13 papers with an introduction by Marvin Kalb describes the role of the mass media and public opinion in the development of U.S. foreign policy in the 1991 Gulf War. It includes papers by PDI board members Jerry Manheim and Steve Livingston.
(Courtesy of Barry Fulton)

Mark BuchananNexus: Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Science of Networks, (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2002). This discussion of network theory, accessible to the non-specialist, treats social, technological, and scientific aspects of how networks interact and exchange information. Includes discussion of the Internet, information networks, the global economy, disease, and ecosystems.

James DawesThe Language of War: Literature and Culture in the U.S. from the Civil War Through World War II, (Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2002). Dawes examines the relationship between language and violence focusing on American literature and two analytical models: The "emancipatory model," derived from political discourse and deliberative democracy theories, and the "disciplinary model," derived from poststructuralism and concepts of language as a means to discipline and control violence.

David FrumThe Right Man: The Surprise Presidency of George W. Bush (New York, Random House, 2003). Chapter 9 in this account by a former Presidential speechwriter deals with the Administration's post 9/11 communications efforts. References to Karen Hughes, Karl Rove, Charlotte Beers, and Norman Pattis. (Courtesy of Dell Pendergrast)

Montreal Museum of Fine ArtsRichelieu: Art and Power, Hilliard Todd Goldfarb, ed. This catalog (411 pages) written for the Museum's recent exhibit explores Cardinal Richelieu's use of the visual arts for political purposes. Thoughtful essays on art, history, psychology, and the subtle use of images to project state power.

Brigitte NacosMass-Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism, (Lanham, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield, 2002). A substantial rewrite of Professor Nacos's (Columbia University) 1996 book on the media and terrorism. Includes extensive research on post 9/11 issues and a restatement of her theories on the media as terrorism's "oxygen" and "propaganda of the deed."

George OrwellEssays. (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Everyman's Library, 2002). The only hardcover edition of Orwell's literary and political writings. Introduction by John Carey. Includes "The Frontiers of Art and Propaganda," "Politics and the English Language," (writing advice worth assigning to undergraduates), and a number of Orwell's BBC World Service commentaries broadcast during World War II.

Sandra SilbersteinWar of Words: Language, Politics and 9/11, (New York, Routledge, 2002). A linguist's critical study of the "strategic deployment of language" by the Bush Administration to build support for the war on terror.

Barbie Zelizer and Stuart AllanJournalism After September 11, (New York, Routledge, 2002). Zelizer (Annenberg School, University of Pennsylvania) and Allan (University of the West of England) bring together 15 essays on journalism and crisis, reporting by CNN and other global news media, Western representations of Islam, online journalism and other topics. Includes essays by James Carey (journalism pre-and post-9/11), Simon Cottle (television), and Ingrid Volkmer (political crises in a global network society).

Associated Press/Silicon Valley News"Internet reaches another technological outpost ... the Iranian village," July 4, 2002.

Associated Press/Silicon Valley NewsTelecommunications drawing investors in Afghanistan. "There are only 12,000 functioning telephones for nearly 2 million people in Kabul. And most calls never go through. The situation is worse in the provinces."

Shazka Beyerle"Net Effect," Foreign Policy, July/August, 2002. Beyerle's review of "the Middle East's e-War." Description and analysis of cyberactivism and conflict resolution websites. Links to numerous websites. (Also a separate link to NATO Press Chief Jamie Shea's "top web picks.")

Council on Foreign Relations Independent Task Force Report on Public Diplomacy. Council Chairman Peter G. Peterson's article, "Public Diplomacy and the War on Terrorism," adapted from "the Chairman's preliminary summary of the report," appears in the new September/October issue of Foreign Affairs, at pp. 74-94. The Executive Summary the full report, appendixes, and dissents are available on line at the Council's website. International network of institutions devoted to education, projects, news, resources, web management and technology tools for the creation and dissemination of information and knowledge for diplomacy and international relations.

Europemedia.Net. Tracks European Internet and new media developments on a pan-European level and country-by-country.

Tom GeltonPentagon Disinformation Debate from All Things Considered, July 19, 2002 Debate continues on the Pentagon's Office of Strategic Influence. Supporters and critics have their say in this five-minute NPR segment.

Tony Judt"Its Own Worst Enemy," The New York Review of Books, August 15, 2002, pp. 12-17. Lengthy favorable review of Joseph Nye's book The Paradox of American Power. Critique of U.S. unilateralism and assessment of European views on U.S. policies.

Jessica Mathews"September 11, One Year Later: A World of Change," Carnegie Endowment's Special Edition, Policy Brief 18, August 20, 2002. Mathews looks at the effects of 9/11 on the economy, the environment, globalization, and the U.S. relationship with Russia, China, Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. She also considers how future events and key policy choices will dictate the eventual significance of 9/11.

Siobhan McEvoy-LevyAmerican Exceptionalism and US Foreign Policy: Public Diplomacy at the End of the Cold War, St. Martins Press, 2001. comments: "This book examines . . . strategies and values employed in the public diplomacy of the Bush and Clinton Administrations to build domestic and international consensus . . . a model and an illustration for how rhetoric may be used in the study of United States foreign policy."

Moises Naim"The New Disapora," Foreign Policy, July/August, 2002. FP editor Naim's thoughts on new links between emigres and their home countries as a force in globalization.

Nua.com2002 Global Trends Report. 10% of the world's population now has Internet access. For the first time, Europe has the highest number of Internet users, with 185.83m Europeans online compared to 182.83m in the US and Canada. The study also confirms no change in the digital divide. Full text of article on the Europemedia site.

NUA Internet Surveys. Online source on Internet demographics and trends. Nua's "How Many Online?" link contains current estimates of global Internet user population, based on surveys and reports from around the world.

Public Diplomacy
Mark Leonard, with Catherine Stead and Conrad Smewing
The British Council, BBC World Service, Norway-UK
18th June 2002

The Foreign Policy Centre, directed by Mark Leonard, has issued a new report on public diplomacy in association with the British Council, BBC World Service, and Norway-UK. Joseph Nye's Amazon reviewer's comment: "First Rate." Below is a summary from the Centre's website ("Tony Blair's think tank").
PDC members will recall the roundtable with Mark Leonard hosted by the Public Diplomacy Institute at George Washington University last spring and a lively conversation on his research for this report.

In the world of al-Jazeera, global protest and mass democracy, building relationships with overseas publics can be as important as talking to governments. Whether countries build an international coalition against al-Qaida, reform the Common Agricultural Policy, or attract inward investment, influencing public opinion abroad will be crucial. What should our strategy for success be in this global competition for exports, tourism, investment and political influence? How can governments harness the power of NGOs, brands, diasporas and political parties to project a modern image? What lessons emerged from public diplomacy after September 11? The report sets out a practical agenda for public diplomacy which draws on fieldwork in six countries, hundreds of interviews with practitioners, and contributions from the experts in academia and communications - from Harvard academic Joseph Nye to Downing Street spokesman Alistair Campbell.

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